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How to Find Solutions to Violence in Society?

Difference Between a Woman and a Man (Yin and Yan)?

by Laksiri Fernando

This is not at all a philosophical discourse on gender differences, or the complementary roles of Yin and Yan (women and men) in social or biological formation. This is also not to speak about who is superior among the two. This is just an observation on why perhaps women are ‘traditionally’ more gentle than men, although we like to call the better behaved men, gentlemen. I use the qualification ‘traditionally,’ because it appears that the things are now changing and the traditional differences are slowly vanishing.

The gentle nature or the behavior of women should be appreciated. I hope all readers would agree with me. We all know about our mothers, how they handled not only day to day domestic affairs, but also crucial family challenges when our fathers often failed to take rational decisions. We also know about our sisters, assisting our mothers, and also assisting us, the male brutes when we tried to indulge in foolish adventures within the family or the neighborhood.

It was Marquis de Condorcet who said ‘women are simply better than men, gentler, more sensitive and less subject to vices of egoism and hard-headedness.’ It was not simply an appreciation of his wife, Sophie, but said so in the process of advocating equal rights for women to vote and acquire political representation. He advocated those during the French Revolution, hundred and thirty years ago. I am however not writing on those lines, but what Condorcet talked about as gentle qualities of women, how those are acquired or determined, and how possibly men also could acquire those qualities in the future.

I am giving only one answer today. Do the domestic share of work and particularly cooking! That might at least sober you and calm you down. Violence is not only about killing or hitting another person, but also an emotion that you often cannot control. Of course you cannot ask everyone to cook and calm themselves down. But I am giving only an example in that direction.

It does not appear that gender differences are strictly physical determinants. There are women like men and vice versa. There can be relative determinants making the difference, that they can bear children, that we cannot do etc. and etc. Both nature and nurture play complimentary roles. I am not qualified to talk about natural or genetic factors too much, but my assumption is that ‘social factors, to mean nurture and socialization, could influence genetic formations.’

Why do I bother about these matters at the last stages of my life? Still curiosity is one reason. A perennial interest of mine is also about how to deal with or find solutions to violence in society.

Women cannot be considered completely free from violence. They at least manage to control their violent tendencies by nature. Men not only fail to do so, but indulge in violence as rather a ‘professional’ preoccupation. Domestic violence is a typical example. One reason is their perception as male and of superiority, and naturally therefore, they tend to compete and fight with their male counterparts and also suppressing women folk. They are also the traditional inheritors of wealth and money, and social competition and fighting logically comes from those sources. In the present day society, politics and power are the major reasons for fighting and violence, naturally inherited by men in society than women.

Perhaps all these were rooted in the division of labor between men and women at least 100,000 years ago. While men went hunting, killing animals for food, women were confined to home at best gathering food from living surroundings (of caves) and looking after the children. I am not referring to whether all of them were monogamous or polygamous! What is important is to understand that this division of labor between men and women also was about a division of labor between violence and nonviolence.

There is an apparent correlation between animal killing and human killing and violence in society. Even in those primitive societies, human killings originated not just because they were competing or fighting for limited terrain (today of controversial territories), but also because they were in some circumstances used to killing and eating flesh of ‘the other.’ This is not only ancient, but also recent. I had a friend from PNG who used to call himself, humorously of course, ‘I am a son of a cannibal.’

That long history is good enough to create certain genetic characteristics in human bodies and mind that could sustain violence particularly among men; women not completely excluded. One way of ameliorating the situation is to give more prominence for women in decision making, in politics, at home, business and public life. At least giving them the fair share (50 percent) might do a lot of good for the human society than at present.

The genetic conditioning or perhaps an inherent nature of violence particularly in men does not mean that it cannot be changed. Nature and nurture are concomitant factors. A first step in unravelling the quagmire is to understand its existence. In the past several decades, or even before, there have been various social (science) theories in explaining violence. Some of these theories unfortunately are more of justifications than solutions to violence.

Why Men Rebel? This was a prominent question asked by a prominent social scientist, Robert Gurr, in 1970 in his very title of the book. This was just one year before the JVP violent insurrection in Sri Lanka. His answer was men rebel because they have grievances or frustrations. He built on the famous frustration-aggressions theory. ‘When a personal goal is thwarted, the individual is often compelled to attack the agent of that frustration or the nearest substitute.’ This personal behavior was elaborated to explain the group behavior as well.

However, Gurr didn’t ask the question whether this is true to both men and women equally? Equality apparently is not the case here, like in many other instances. When a personal goal is thwarted, it appears that women have different or lateral ways of dealing with the problem/s. Aggression is particularly typical of men and not of women.

How come that they have acquired that good quality? My answer perhaps might be rejected by some feminists. They might claim that ‘frustration-aggression theory’ is equally applied to women. They are equal to men in all qualities of life. Why women should be submissive when their goals or rights are obstructed? They might ask. Of course they should not be submissive. My argument or proposition is different. Women have acquired certain discipline, decorum and perseverance that they do not easily indulge in violence or aggression. That is a merit and not a weakness.

This is what I relate to the kitchen and cooking today! In recent times, many countries have ventured to find ways and means in saving young males from violence and aggression. These are mostly Western countries. This is particularly because of domestic violence. The perpetrators of domestic violence are men and not (usually) women. One device that they have developed is coeducation or mix-education. It is relatively true that when boys are educated with girls, often the girls influence the boys and this could generate a balance. Of course there can be evidence also to the contrary.

Another device that many Western countries are now adopting is the introduction of ‘mindfulness training’ in school education. This is like the Buddhist meditation. This kind of simple meditation most definitely can calm down the emotions of youngsters and rationalize their thinking patterns. The usefulness of such devices are not merely relevant to children but also to adults. Universities also should open up and adopt these methods and devices. Universities in Japan are very prominent in utilizing meditation and different types of Yoga.

Can there be a connection between meditation and cooking? I first came to realize the connection when I visited the Zen Buddhist Temple, Shunkoln, in Kyoto during my sabbatical in 2006 in Kyoto, Japan. Their tea ceremony rituals were marvelous. ‘If you want to know about yourself deeply, you should know how to make tea and how to serve them to others properly,’ they said.

The connection is most evident from the documentary movie of Zen Monk or Master, Edward Espe Brown’s How to Cook Your Life. One may argue that things are now commercialized and meditation has become a commodity. However, the connection is clear. Among other things, it says, ‘When steaming rice, regard the pot as your own head; when washing rice, know that the water is your own life.’ This is about mindful cooking and meditation in the process. All these advices are for peaceful, nonviolent and sustainable living.

(Edward Espe Brown delivering a Lesson)
This is perhaps what our mothers and sisters practiced and knew about throughout ages. This is perhaps why women are most naturally clam, gentler, sensitive and rational without vices of egoism and hard-headedness, as Condorcet claimed. Therefore, the best way to promote peace and nonviolence in society is to promote the women’s way.

Sri Lanka: The Need for a Non Partisan Presidency

The ongoing political crisis in the country, the political deadlock, the weak governance, and the shocking security lapses that led to the Easter Sunday bombings are evidence enough of the disastrous impact that partisan politics 

Cognisant of the political deadlock within the country, and as a means of ending it, President Maithripala Sirisena has referred to the need to abolish the 19th Amendment to the constitution. This as the landmark legislation that reduced the powers of the presidency and increased the autonomy of state institutions. Both of these measures have had a positive impact on governance in the country. Despite the reduction in the powers of the presidency it continues to remain a powerful institution. Unfortunately, when the president and parliamentary majority are from two different political parties, it can generate political deadlock, which is the present situation in the country.

The ongoing political crisis in the country, the political deadlock, the weak governance, and the shocking security lapses that led to the Easter Sunday bombings are evidence enough of the disastrous impact that partisan politics can have, especially when played out at the highest levels of the polity. Accordingly, the National Peace Council is of the view that the presidency, being a foremost national institution, voted for by the entire electorate, should be unfettered from partisan party politics and not be mired in it as at present.

In the context of the ongoing debate in parliament on the vexed topic of constitutional reform, we urge our lawmakers in parliament to consider a constitutional amendment that would further build on the 19th Amendment’s commitment to the de-politicising of key national institutions. We deplore the use of presidential powers for narrow and partisan purposes. While the president needs 50 percent plus one votes of the national electorate to be elected, the president needs to govern the country with all 100 percent of the population in mind and in heart.

The National Peace Council, therefore, calls for a 20th Amendment to the constitution by which any person elected as the president would be required by law to step down from all party political positions and be a non-partisan president who works for the wellbeing of all. With presidential elections due within the course of this year, and concerns about the re-establishment of an over-powerful presidency being high, we affirm that the need for this constitutional amendment is particularly urgent.

The statement issued by The National Peace Council

Reconciliation ‘Muddled’ – Part 1

Reconciliation is an empty signifier – it is a term that can be variously interpreted and signified

by Chamindry Saparamadu

Of the ‘Yahapalana’ pledges, the one least fulfilled, in my view, is its rhetoric in achieving national reconciliation. Four and half years into government, we witness increasing polarization of ethnic and religious communities in a deeply fragmented society.Needless to say that the recent terror attacks by Islamic extremists, although coming within a network of a global phenomenon,have caused considerable strain on relations between Muslim and other communities locally making national reconciliation an even more challenging aim to be achieved. These have resulted in aggravating fear and mistrust between communities leading to further polarization.However, it would seem that the tensions that were prone to manipulation and ignition were omnipresent in our society, even prior to the recent terror attacks, as was evident from the Digana riots that we experienced early last year. In understanding the failures to achieve reconciliation, or even part of it, in the backdrop of Yahapalanarhetoric, I would first reflect on the way in which reconciliation was understood and approached in the Yahapalanaprogramme as a precursor to the failures that followed.

Conceptualizing ‘Reconciliation; under the ‘Yapahalana’Programme

Reconciliation was a hyped up theme that underpinned theYahapalana discourse. However integral the theme was to Yahapalana discourse, the theme received relatively less significance in the Yahapalana design as the political discourse was not concretized in to an operationalizableprogramme of action in the Yahapalana manifesto as was evident from the 100 days programme or the document titled ‘A Manifesto: a Compassionate Maitri Governance: a Stable Country’.

I could imagine two explanations for the omissionto define as well as lay out objectives, a design and a programme of action relating to reconciliation The first being, the presence of divergent views among the Yahapalana stakeholders and the inability to reach a common position with regard to a conceptual understanding or design on Reconciliation The views and approaches to reconciliation varied along polar extremes from land releases to demilitarization and war crimes investigation to state reforms. For example, the approach to state reforms between two main stakeholders in the Yahapalanaprogramme, the JathikaHelaUrumaya(JHU) and the Tamil National Alliance(TNA) significantly varied. It is no secret that the TNA has consistently lobbied for a federal state structure while the JHU has been firm with regard to preserving the unitary structure of the Sri Lankan State while agreeing to makelimited concessions.

The second explanation is as a deliberate political / electoral strategy to keep things vague in order to reach out to minority communities, particularly the Tamil political forces, whilst also appeasing the Sinhala constituency. It seems therefore, prudent to have avoideddealing with the contestations surrounding the term. The Yahapalanaya movement succeeded in converging diverse groups into a single platform of abolishing the executive presidency, although contestations existed on secondary matters. Needless to say that implicit in the objective of abolishing the executive presidency was the desire to prevent a return of MahindaRajapakse. Then there was the issue of the ideological leanings and commitment of the common presidential candidate to the core objectives of the Yahapalanaprogramme, whose selection was solely based on the need to defeat the incumbent. The movement, therefore, became a populist movement when it got enmeshed in electoral realities. Years later, various statements made by the same common candidate, make one wonder if there was ever a commitment to the objectives of the Yahapalanaprogramme.

The term was therefore conceptualized vaguely and loosely and no effort was taken to harmonize the diverse views. The movement as such was imbued with internal contradictions from the outset. I argue that this omission in conceptualization and design created a void leaving for interpretation particularly those externally imported and allowing the national narrative and agenda relating to reconciliation to be defined along those lines. I believe this set the stage for the confusion that ensued at the implementation stage.

The Geneva Solution

Reconciliation is an empty signifier – it is a term that can be variously interpreted and signified. It is a term that is new to the Sri Lankan context and as such needed definition and interpretation. In the Yahaapalanaprogramme, the theme itself lacked conceptual clarity from the outset. The absence of a fermented national definition, focus and anoperationalizableprogramme of action, created a void which led to reconciliation to be conceptualized predominantly through an institutional framework that came along with the Resolution 30/1 adopted by the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) in October 2015.

The framework proposed institutions to be designed along the four pillars of truth, justice, reparations and non-recurrence. The institutions along the four pillars were developed by a Working Group which was tasked to conceptualize the four mechanisms the government undertook to set up under the UNHRC Resolution 30/1that is to set up the Office of Missing Persons, the Office of Reparations, Truth and Reconciliation Mechanisms and the Accountability mechanisms. While the capacity and integrity of the members of the Working Group is not in the least being questioned, concerns have been on whether the Working Group was an exclusive group with similar ideological leanings and did not represent the broader Sri Lankan society and its diverse and complex facets.

The reconciliation discourse and the agenda being shaped along the lines of this frameworkled critics to say that alternative approaches outside the given framework were not considered and that the idea generation was in the hands of few stakeholders engaged with the Geneva processes as well as the technical groups that stemmed from similar political and ideological backgrounds. Some of the main concerns have been on the limiting nature of such framework, its suitability to local context as well as sustainability, and whether it is sufficiently representative of the domestic context to define a national narrative and agenda. Critics have alleged that the conceptualization has been on fixed conceptions and views devoid of a deeper and more nuanced understanding of Sri Lanka’s history and culture and that there were also no linkages or continuity from the previous processes, particularly the Lessons Leant and Reconciliation Committee (LLRC) process.

The consultation processes that preceded such conceptualization were said to be outcome oriented having predetermined outcome preferences and wereconducted on a given framework and by implication limited to and by such framework. Discussions based on frameworks have a tendency to steer and fashion discussions towards an expected outcome. In addition, many eye brows were raised regarding the manner in which the Office of Missing Persons (OMP) Act was passed in Parliament. The OMP was establishedwith the objective of ‘tracing the missing and disappeared and to inform the relatives of those persons, the circumstances of the disappearances and the fate of their loved ones.” There are concerns that while the establishment of such a body to address the grievances of the families of the disappeared was meant to be an outcome of the nationally mandated consultation process on reconciliation mechanisms (the Consultation Task Force on Reconciliation Mechanisms (CTF)), the legislation relating to setting up of the OMP was presented and passed by Parliament prior to the conclusion of the CTF process. The process leading to the establishment of the OMP therefore raises serious doubts as to whether it was based on local demands or on a preconceived idea imposed by few and legitimized by local consultations

The present section of the article looked at the reconciliation process vis-à-vis the Yahapalana movement as an entry point to understanding the confusion that followed during the implementation stage. The second part of the article to be published next week would look at how the reconciliation agenda unfolded through the multiple institutions crated to achieve national reconciliation.

The writer, Attorney at Law based Colombo.

South African Business Role in Creating Sustainable Peace & a Stable Economy

Across the world, South Africa was seen as a pariah state because of apartheid that separated races…. We were ostracised by the international community

What would be the role of businesses in creating a sustainable economic resurgence? Speaking from experience, South African High Commissioner Robina Marks stated that the primary role of businesses is to play an active part in uniting a country, for both their own survival and sustainability, and for the country’s economic development.

“Across the world, South Africa was seen as a pariah state because of apartheid that separated races…. We were ostracised by the international community,” she said, adding that the international anti-apartheid movement successed in applying sanctions against South Africa. This in turn snowballed into civil society, who refused to buy and consume South African products, as that was seen as tantamount to condoning apartheid.

Robina Marks 
The country soon hit an all-time low, as the South African economy was in free-fall.

“From the mid-1980s, foreign governments and businesses cut many economic ties with South Africa, and in 1985, international banks began refusing to roll over short-term debt with the result that, over the next year, the country would have to pay one billion US dollars in loans. Inflation rose to 16 percent, the currency tumbled and the government introduced exchange controls. By 1986, over 100 multinationals had disinvested from South Africa,” the High Commissioner said.

However, the country was able to turn themselves around, in just 25 years. South Africa is now considered to be a leader in the African continent, with a GDP of USD385 billion, compared to Sri Lanka, which has a GDP of USD90 billion. High Commissioner Marks attributes this to an invisible role played by their business community and private sector. She does reveal that the reason businesses played such a leading role was that they ‘quite frankly, didn’t have a choice.’ The economy was down, domestic consumption was down, and the international export market was shrinking. In this climate, the private sector had two choices — to help the apartheid government and white society, or to help build a climate of trust in which the political leaders could move the country towards a more stable future. They chose the latter.

The role played by the business community

In moving towards a more prosperous and united future, the private sector banded together to push South Africa towards success.

“They funded efforts at maintaining the peace. They knew that it was in their own interest to make concessions around a decent living wage that would quell the many industrial strikes that we had at the time. Many of them improved their working conditions, improved salaries to workers, and offered scope for promotion to their black workforce.”

They basically helped to market the vision of a non-racist South Africa to the international community.

“They were vocal about the fact that the country was on the right track, that good, fair and inclusive governance could also be good for business, and more importantly, because they had vested personal and business interests, that they had no intention of leaving. So when prominent companies like Anglo American started “selling” the new SA, the outside world took notice that there would be no local capital flight,” she said.

Another point of importance was that the business leaders all stayed back. According to her excellency Marks, ‘nothing demonstrates confidence in a country more than staying and not leaving for what might be seen as greener pastures.’

The High Commissioner made these remarks at a panel discussion on The Role of Business in Sustainable Economic Resurgence, conducted by the Ceylon Chamber of Commerce at their 180th Annual General Meeting held recently.

Responding to a query by the moderator, Ganaka Herath, on what could be done for gender equality, Ms. Marks highlighted that socio-cultural expectations of women needing to stay at home, had to change.

“I think that we all know that female participation in the workforce has gone down considerably, by 10% - 12%; because of unfriendly environments. There isn’t a sense of understanding work-life challenges,” she said, adding that we all needed more men like her co-panelists — Dr. A.T Ariyarathne and Mahesh Amalean — as role models.

The business of business is not only business, she stressed, and any company that ignores the impact that an uncertain external political environment have on their bottom line is doomed to fail.

Space Transportation Fifty Years After The Moon Landing

The prospect of space tourism looms ahead, making our minds soar with dreams of flights into the heavens

by Dr. Ruwantissa Abeyratne
Writing from Montreal

All civilizations become either spacefaring or extinct. ~ CARL SAGAN, Pale Blue Dot

On 16 July 1969, Apollo 11 took to the heavens carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin and Michael Collins. This was just 66 years after the Wright Brothers demonstrated that humans could use aerodynamic lift to fly heavier than air aircraft. While Collins was orbiting, Armstrong and Aldrin walked on the Moon for 21 hours creating history and demonstrating for the first time that humankind could have physical access to a celestial body. 50 years on, we are on the cusp of sending humans to Mars with the ultimate aim of colonizing it.

Space Tourism: Dream come true?
By any modern standards of human endeavor and research, space transportation stands preeminent in the wonderment it offers. What began as exploration of outer space in the nineteen fifties and sixties is now opening out as full-blown tourism in space. Added to this is the startling possibility of the existence of life in outer space which makes us not only think but wonder in amazement. Stephen Hawking – the preeminent theoretical physicist – has stated that in a universe with 100 billion galaxies, each containing hundreds of millions of stars, it is unlikely that life forms are present only on Earth.

Against this bewildering backdrop, we continue to use and explore outer space, take pictures, calculate trajectories of planets and determine who owns the moon and what the purpose of outer space exploration is. An added dimension would be the use of aerospace in terrestrial transportation where an aerospace plane will take off as an aircraft, go into orbit, enter the atmosphere using the Earth’s orbit into its destination, cutting the travel time significantly. It is said that by using this method, air travel time can be reduced drastically. For instance, a journey by air between Los Angeles and Sydney, which would now take 16 hours by conventional air travel, could take 2 hours or less. None of these technological feats would be possible without the advancement of information technology and computerized knowledge-sharing.

The prospect of space tourism looms ahead, making our minds soar with dreams of flights into the heavens. All this brings to bear the question as to how we should handle outer space given the dimensions envisioned. How would we handle space tourism?

Narrowly defined, the word “tourism “means travel for recreation or instruction, often in organized groups. The tourism industry primarily provides the tourist with travel to the destination and thereafter provides accommodation usually in a commercial establishment that provides lodging, food, and other services to the public. Therefore, tourism is essentially associated with the transport and hospitality industries, where the hotel business features as an important industry which caters to people traveling for business or pleasure. When these factors are translated into exigencies of a viable space tourism industry, many considerations emerge, particularly from an extra-terrestrial perspective. The main issues are whether a commercially viable and sufficiently evolved space transportation program could be a reality in the near future and whether the infrastructure needed for establishing accommodation for a sustained tourism industry in the inhospitable terrain of outer space could be put into place. Some have suggested that space tourism is indeed a realistic goal in the near future particularly if a space program were calculated to create permanent settlements. The residents of such outposts would have to “live off the land,” obtaining necessities such as oxygen and water from the harsh environment of outer space. For example, it has been suggested that on the Moon, pioneers could obtain oxygen by heating lunar soil. In 1998 the Lunar Prospector discovered evidence of significant deposits of ice—a valuable resource for settlers—mixed with soil at the lunar poles. It is also thought that on Mars, oxygen could be extracted from the atmosphere and water could come from buried deposits of ice.

Space tourism, which would have been merely a dream and a cinematographic fantasy at best is fast becoming neither a fantasy nor just a nickname for conventional manned space flights. It is now considered a viable economic activity based on public demand. Dennis Tito and Mark Shuttleworth, both of whom traveled as tourists in space have already obviated any doubts regarding the immense possibilities of this activity. Space tourism is a term broadly applied to the concept of travel beyond Earth's atmosphere by paying customers. It can be defined to include not only the vehicles that take public passengers into space, but also from the perspective of the "destination" paradigm. As such, the industry can be envisioned to include earth-based attractions that simulate the space experience such as space theme parks, space training camps, virtual reality facilities, multimedia interactive games, and telerobotic moon rovers controlled from earth. Also included are parabolic flight, vertical suborbital flights, orbital flights lasting up to 3 days, or weeklong stays at a floating space hotel, including participatory educational, research and entertainment experiences as well as space sports competitions (i.e. space Olympics).

To see the unseen and know the unknown has been the genesis and heritage of human aspiration from early times, resulting in human migration and travel over centuries. The arcane desire to conquer the invincible is an endemic human trait. Space tourism has the added dimension of making space tourists ambassadors of planet Earth to other celestial territories while at the same time giving them the thrill of crossing the frontiers of the Earth’s atmosphere into uncharted territory that is outer space. It is believed that the sensation of weightlessness and the defeat of the force of gravity are the most alluring to the space tourist. Recent advancements in space technology have enabled the world community to develop safe, reliable and affordable transportation systems for space travel within the next decade or so. The National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan, in a market survey on space tourism, has revealed that the price of a return ticket to low Earth orbit should be reduced to between US $ 10,000 to US$ 20,000 per person. A market of one million passengers per year from the world’s two largest markets - North America and Europe - would, at US$ 10,000 per return ticket, yield revenues of US$ 10 billion a year. This would make space travel by the ordinary or “average” citizen of the world a common occurrence. It is reported that Enzo Paci, Chief Statistician of the World Tourism Organization, conducted a study in which he concluded that short pleasure voyages to outer space by tourists will become a reality in 2004 or 2005. However, in 2019, we are still waiting for a commercial product that would make this prognosis a reality although we are almost there.

Taken from a socio-legal perspective, space tourism brings to bear unique considerations, from the status of the space tourist to the conduct expected of such a person and the various liability regimes that might be required to address the “package deal” concerning the contract of carriage to outer space and amenities provided by the service provider. Additionally, real concerns of liability, insurance coverage and risk management would have to be allayed before a sustained space tourism programme takes to the heavens.

Amidst all its glamour and glitter, space transportation brings to bear two major considerations. The first is that the development of this mode of transportation should essentially be subject to good governance. The second is that any development of space transportation should not endanger and encroach upon the rights of sovereign States and their citizens.

Dr. Abeyratne, who is a former international civil servant, is the author of Frontiers of Aerospace Law and Space Security Law.

“One Country – One Law”

We are for “One Country – One Law”

by Zulkifli Nazim

The hot subject under discussion today - The Muslim Marriages and Divorces Act.

We were monitoring the discussions, press releases and conspicuous loud comments from certain Muslims, who have no knowledge of the subject. We have also seen a few politicians and some so-called preachers, who too are lacking knowledge in the fundamentals and nescient of the prevailing chaos and bedlam, trying to voice their emotions and sentiments and trying to create upheaval, disturbance and disorder.

It is an established fact that No woman will agree to share her lawful husband with another woman.

The Tunisian Government, an Islamic State, has banned polygamy and they initiated this in the year 2012. Many other countries are in the process of following suit.

Here is an excerpt of what the Tunisian ladies feel about polygamy:

Quote: (Regarding the most welcome ban) - "I do not think that women in Tunisia will give up this gain easily, because the Tunisian woman is a jealous one and will never be satisfied that her husband has a second woman in his life other than her," Aisha Youssef commented.

Rim Azzabi considered that polygamy would undermine family stability and create unnecessary social tragedies. "Marriage is a relationship of friendship, convergence and integrated partnership, and responsibility between women and men," she said.

Her husband Jamel Bahri agreed with her, saying, "For me, I cannot marry a second, even if I can afford it. One is enough, the number is not important. What is important is peace of mind and the good rearing of the offspring. This is my happiness." Unquote (Source – Maghrebia – September 10, 2012.)

Morocco has reformulated a New Islamic Family Law.

The men in the Muslim Community, as well as men from other communities, have abused this Muslim Marriages and Divorces Laws for decades and it is time to put a stop to it now. Even while having a legal wife, they embrace Islam and get married to a second wife - Even those who are not Muslims, if they have an idea of getting married a second time under this so-called “law” they embrace Islam and marry a second time – this we have seen happen a bit too often and in this country, this has become a joke and a farce.

Based on all this, we think it is high time that we too legislate proper laws declaring the second marriage a “bigamy” and must be criminally prosecuted when a legal marriage exists and is in force.

The Muslims are allowed religious freedom under our constitution, with regard to their rituals and those concerned with sacred matters, religion and the mosque.

Any other social interactions – like marriage, and other interactions with human society and its members, must be subject to the laws of this country.

We are for “One Country – One Law”